I’ve been experimenting with kneading approaches and after a couple of loaves made with this way of kneading, I can safely say, this makes better bread than before, and I am happy now. This only applies to firm or moderately loose doughs, that benefit from strengthening. For rye doughs (rye > 90%) one just has to make sure the hydration is high enough to get a good aeration.
1. Knead in short intervals, briefly, for about 30 minutes (à la Dan Lepard).
2. Knead the dough by hand for about 7-10 minutes vigorously, stretching it quite forcefully and slapping it on the counter.
Conclusion: I just sucked at kneading, so more attention to it helped my bread.